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cer
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바울이 이신칭의(以信稱義; 갈 2:16)도 분명히 얘기했고 행위심판에 따른 영생(롬 2:7)도 언급해서, 그 편지들이 쓰이고 2천 년이 지난 지금도 신학자들 사이에 이신칭의와 행위심판의 관계에 대한 해석이 갈리고 있습니다. 평신도들의 성경공부나 대부분의 목사님들 설교에서는 그 해석이 크게 갈리지 않겠지만요.
이신칭의(롬 3:20, 28; 4:1–8; 갈 2:16; 3:2–5; 빌 3:9)와 행위심판(롬 2:13; 14:10–12; 고전 3:10–15; 4:5; 고후 5:10; 11:15; 갈 6:7–8)에 관한 학자들의 다양한(14 갈래) 주장을 정리해 놓은 논문이 있더군요. 거기 담긴 학설 분류도를 여러분들께도 소개해 드립니다. 각 학설 뒤의 괄호 안에 있는 이름들이 그 이론의 주창자들입니다.
(출처: Dane C. Ortlund. (2009). Justified by Faith, Judged According to Works: Another Look at a Pauline ParadoxJournal of the Evangelical Theological Society52(2), 323–39.)

'믿음만으로 의롭다 함을 받는다'와 '행위로 심판 받는다'의 관계에 관한 학설 분류
'Justified by Faith' vs. 'Judged According to Works'


I. Irreconcilable

a. Paul is inconsistent and contradictory (Wrede, Kuula);

b. Paul’s judgment according to works motif is an unfortunate Jewish retention not adequately jettisoned by the former Pharisee (Weiss, Pfleiderer, Braun);

II. Reconcilable if Justification is Given Interpretive Authority

c. Justification is by faith, and the concept of one being judged and granted eternal life based upon obedience is hypothetical (Turretin, Ritschl, Lietzmann, Longenecker, Wilckens, Thielman, Waters, Westerholm);

d. The “judgment according to works” motif serves Paul’s rhetorical purposes, unsettling the ethically complacent (Wetter, Joest, Conzelmann, Synofzik, N. Watson, Elliot, van Spanje);

e. Judgment according to works is an event subsequent to a final, worksfree justification, and this judgment is the meting out of relative degrees of reward (Filson, Devor, Mattern, Vos, Morris, Ladd, Barnett, Reymond, Stettler);

III. Reconcilable if Judgment/Obedience is Given Interpretive Authority

f. Justification by faith excludes legalistic/self-righteous obedience from playing a role in one’s final verdict; it is indeed the “doers of the law”—albeit imperfectly, and only by divine grace—who will be justified (Cambier, Snodgrass, Fuller);

g. Justification by faith refers only or mainly to salvation’s inauguration; final, eternity-determining judgment depends upon works produced thereafter (Godet, Wernle, Donfried, Sanders, Garlington, Yinger, Rainbow);

h. Final acquittal is based squarely on works; the dik- lexeme in Paul (as in “justification by faith”) refers not to a forensic declaration but an ethically qualitative righteousness (Gore, Van Landingham);

i. Justification by faith, emerging in the context of deconstructing ethno-centric tendencies in young Christian communities, was never intended to exclude moral deeds (more generally conceived) from contributing to final acquittal(Dunn, Wright, F. Watson);

j. In light of the Christ-event, Gentiles can now be justified by faith alone, while Jews continue to be evaluated based on Torah-observance; hence justification by faith applies to Gentiles, judgment according to works to Jews (M. Barth, Gaston, Gager, Wyschogrod);

IV. Reconcilable if both Justification and Judgment Emerge from a More Fundamental Reality

k. The key is a robust appropriation of the new covenant reality of the empowering, indwelling Spirit to all those who have been freely justified solely on the basis of Christ’s atoning work (Schreiner, Gathercole, Smith);

l. Justification and judgment are both rooted in authentic faith: justifying faith is acting, laboring, loving faith, by which faith-energized actions are all evaluated (Melanchthon, Berkouwer, Ridderbos, Pregeant, Seifrid);

m. Justification and judgment are both rooted in the lordship-inaugurating righteousness of God, with its twin realities of status and power (Schlatter, Kertelge, Käsemann, Stuhlmacher);

n. Justification and judgment are both rooted in union with Christ, a union from which fruit organically and inevitably grows(Calvin, Edwards, O’Brien, Gaffin).

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    cer 2014.03.14 19:22
    다른 게시판에 올렸던 글인데, 여기가 이 글에 맞는 것 같아서 옮겼습니다.
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    ljs 2014.03.24 03:04
    좋은 글 감사합니다!

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